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In life we often hear the phrases «it defies logic» or «it is illogical. In general, we understand that we are talking about an incorrect judgment, and erroneous conclusions. But where exactly is the logic violated – it is difficult to say. There are 4 laws of logic that can be used to easily separate false from true. Logic is an ancient science that appeared in the 4th century BC, its founders were Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, and many other famous philosophers who diligently studied the laws and forms of correct logical thinking. Let’s look at simple examples of the meaning of the four basic laws of logic and how to apply them in life.
The Law of Identity
Every thought must be consistent with itself, that is, it must have a specific meaning and be precise and understandable. The most famous example: «the students have listened to the lesson.» The term «listened» in this sentence can have two definitions: whether the students listened to nothing in the lesson, or, on the contrary, studied the new topic or essay examples carefully. The main thing to watch out for is ambiguous words that can have multiple meanings. The hardest thing to recognize is a violation of identity in complex statements:
- What will you choose: happiness or candy? – Happiness.
- What do you think is better than happiness? -Nothing!
- But candy is better than nothing.
- So candy is better than happiness.
In the example, the concept of «nothing» in the first version meant «giving up an option,» in the second, as the absence of something.
The Law of Contradiction
No two thoughts that deny each other can be equally true. For example, when one says «black dog» and «white dog,» referring to the same dog in the same time frame, only one statement can be correct. In life, it is important to identify contradictions, to separate wordplay from lies.
The law of the excluded third
Two contradictory statements must not be equally false. This is where it is important to distinguish contradictory from contradictory statements. The former judgments do not have a third option, such as a large apartment and a small apartment. Contradictory judgments allow for a third option, such as «small apartment» and «large apartment,» the other option is «medium apartment.» In simple examples, the principle is clear, but in life, contradictory judgments are usually separated by a long preposition that is confusing.
The law of sufficient reason
True thought must be based on the reasoning in order to be true. Importantly, the statement itself must follow those facts. For example, «I was studying for an exam, so I didn’t deserve a D.» One fact does not support the assertion; the student could have just lectured and not memorized the necessary material. This law helps not to make premature conclusions and not to believe, for example, different yellow press.
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